Yesterday was the 214th anniversary of the battle of Trafalgar, arguably the most important naval engagement in British history.
The night before the battle, Admiral Nelson invited his captains on board his flagship, HMS Victory, for dinner.
As the main course was being cleared away, he gathered them all round to outline his battle plan, which he sketched out with the few quick strokes of his pen that you see here.
The sketch was designed to illustrate a simple, but incredibly important point.
Instead of sailing in a line parallel with the Franco-Spanish fleet and simply pounding away in an exchange of gunfire (the orthodox naval tactics of the time), Nelson wanted his ships to sail straight at the enemy, break their line and engage them at close quarters.
It was risky, but it was also the only way to achieve a decisive victory. Sticking to the rule-book would be unlikely to give either fleet much of an advantage. Whereas getting in close would allow the superior seamanship and gunnery of the British crews to come into their own.
The stakes were high: if Nelson failed, the one obstacle preventing a French invasion of Britain would be removed. On the other hand, a decisive victory would give the British naval supremacy (in those days, as significant an advantage as air supremacy is in today’s conflicts).
Success depended on his captains understanding what they had to do and executing it perfectly.
Nelson knew that the best way to explain it was to draw it. If he’d just used words, his officers would have heard him, but might have assumed that they’d misunderstood, because what he was saying was unusual.
Whereas, when they saw the picture, his captains got it immediately. They followed the plan and it worked: the combined Franco-Spanish fleet was comprehensively routed.
Britain had established a dominance of the seas that would last for the next hundred years and make her the richest, most powerful nation on earth.
It’s an object lesson in the value of being able to explain an idea visually.
At the height of its Empire, in 1860, Britain accounted for a staggering 47% of all global trade. (To put that in context, today’s most dominant trading nation, China, accounts for around 17%).
Britain’s trading dominance was only possible because of the Royal Navy’s absolute control of the seas.
Which, in turn, was only possible because of Nelson’s visionary sketch.
Which makes that sketch worth around 50 trillion dollars in today’s money.
Eat your heart out, Damien Hurst.